Edinburgh Agreement 1992

The Edinburgh Agreement or the Edinburgh Decision is a December 1992 agreement reached at a European Council in Edinburgh, Scotland, granting Denmark four derogations from the Maastricht Treaty so that it can be ratified by Denmark. This was necessary because it could not enter into force without ratification by all the Member States of the European Union. Denmark initially rejected the Maastricht Treaty but, with the addition of the Edinburgh Agreement, ratified the Treaty by referendum in 1993. Those Member States that had already ratified the Maastricht Treaty did not have to do so again. Denmark obtained four opt-outs of the Maastricht Treaty after the treaty was first rejected by referendum in 1992. Opt-outs are defined in the Edinburgh Agreement and concern Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), common security and defence policy (CSDP), justice and home affairs (JHA) and European citizenship. With these derogations, the Danish people accepted the treaty in a second referendum in 1993. Denmark signed the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court on 19 February 2013 with the other members of the European Union. The agreement had to be ratified by thirteen states, including France, Germany and Great Britain, and had to provide for an adaptation of the Brussels I Regulation before the agreement could be applied. The Court has not yet started its work, as not all Member States have yet ratified it. In a referendum on 3 December 22015, Denmark voted `no` to joining cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs under conditions similar to those adopted by the United Kingdom under the Maastricht Treaty. After four derogations granted to Denmark, as agreed in the Edinburgh Agreement, the Danish Parliament expressed concern that these derogations restrict Danish interests within the EU. Since the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam (or the Treaty of Amsterdam) in 1997, many issues relating to Ji have been decided by qualified majority and not by unanimity.

As a result, Denmark was unable to participate in these decisions because of the derogations provided for in the Edinburgh Agreement. The Danish political parties were not satisfied with having to give in to the lengthy and complex procedures of the need to conclude parallel agreements with the EU on an individual basis. Although Denmark participates in European police cooperation (Europol), the rules on Europol changed in 2015 and these changes would have to be decided by qualified majority, which indicated that, under the new conditions, Denmark would not be a participant in Europol. This, together with other problems that Denmark has faced with regard to cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs, including counter-terrorism activities, justified the circumstances that led to the holding of a referendum. Denmark has held eight European Union (EU) referendums. The European Economic Community, which began as a regional organisation with the aim of leading economic integration among its members, was originally created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. . .

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