Agreement Exists On Outlawed Behavior

The label “crime” and the accompanying social stigma generally limit their scope to activities considered detrimental to the general population or the state, including some that cause serious loss or harm to individuals. Those who use the terms “crime” or “polar” intend to assert the hegemony of a dominant population or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the behaviour identified and to justify all sentences prescribed by the state (in cases where standard treatment attempts and convicts a person accused of a crime). Criminalization can be seen as a procedure implemented by society as a preventive instrument for harm reduction, which uses the threat of sanctions as a deterrent for anyone who proposes to participate in harm-causing behaviours. The state is involved because the authorities in power can be convinced that the cost of non-criminalization (by reducing damage) outweighs the cost of criminalization (restricting individual freedom, for example to minimize damage to others). [Citation required] Although there are membership criteria, informal control through daily interactions and ceremonies forms the basis of surveillance and sanctions. These elements make the organization stable and territorially limited over time. By presenting parasitic behaviour on existing institutionalized patterns and behaviours, the organization can acquire the ability to respond to multiple arenas and influence them to produce different services and goods. The interaction between capacity for action in several arenas and territorial boundaries seems to make the organization more sustainable and stable, allowing the infiltration of legal structures, which increases collective resources. The Syrian mafia is a sub-organization with heavy institutional characteristics. Mafia-type organisations are typically characterized as behaviours rooted in community traditions and family ties (Europol 2013; Gambetta 1993). The family is broader in its implications than blood links (Paoli 2003).

The behaviours of these organizations are the basis of hierarchies, formal rules and monitoring through repeated ceremonial interactions. Organizations have a strong identity, based on territorial boundaries, capitalizing on local traditions and myths (Dickie 2004, 2013; Gambetta 1993). Just as we cannot choose our genetics, we cannot choose how we are raised when we are children. Some of us enjoy pleasant, even idyllic childhoods, while others are less fortunate. Children who grow up in particularly bad situations are at increased risk of criminal behaviour in adolescence and adulthood. Indeed, research shows that convicted offenders have probably experienced four times as many adverse events in children as non-criminals3.3 There is no debate about the link between criminal behaviour and substance abuse. In addition, 63 to 83% of those arrested for most offences at the time of arrest test illicit drugs positively.6 Some drugs, such as alcohol, reduce our inhibitions, while others, such as cocaine, excite our nervous system.

Comments Are Closed